Managing Enlarged Prostate: Symptoms and Treatment Options

An enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a common condition affecting ageing men. As the prostate gland grows, it can cause uncomfortable and severe symptoms. Recognizing the signs and knowing treatment options can help manage the condition effectively. At Zymus Hospital in Bangalore, we offer comprehensive care and advanced treatments for BPH, ensuring our patients lead comfortable and healthy lives.

Understanding the Condition

BPH is non-cancerous, and it is an enlargement of the prostate gland. It typically develops after age 40 and becomes more prevalent as men age. The prostate gland is located exactly below the urinary bladder, and as it enlarges, it presses against the urethra, leading to urinary symptoms. While BPH is not cancerous, the symptoms can significantly impact daily life, making understanding and managing this condition crucial.

Symptoms of an Enlarged Prostate

BPH can present a variety of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. Being watchful about these symptoms early can help manage the condition more effectively. Common symptoms include:

  1. Frequent Urination: One of the most common signs is an increased frequency of urination, especially at night (nocturia). This can disrupt sleep and impact daily activities.
  2. The urgency to Urinate: A sudden, strong need to urinate that can be difficult to delay.
  3. Difficulty Starting Urination: Trouble beginning to urinate despite feeling the need.
  4. Weak Urine Stream: A noticeable decrease in the strength of the urine stream.
  5. Dribbling at the End of Urination: A small amount of urine may continue to dribble even after urinating.
  6. Incomplete Emptying of Bladder: A feeling that the Bladder is still full even after urination.
  7. Painful Urination: Discomfort or pain during urination or micturition can also be a symptom.

These symptoms vary significantly between people and affect quality of life. They can lead to sleep disturbances, discomfort, and even social embarrassment. Understanding these signs is crucial in seeking timely medical intervention.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of BPH is still unknown, but several factors may contribute to the condition:

  1. Ageing: The primary risk factor, with symptoms becoming more common as men age.
  2. Family History: A genetic predisposition may elevate the risk of developing BPH.
  3. Lifestyle Factors: Obesity, lack of exercise, and other lifestyle choices can contribute to the risk.
  4. Hormonal Changes: Changes in hormone levels, mainly the balance between testosterone and estrogen, may play a role.


The diagnosis of BPH typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and several diagnostic tests:

  1. Digital Rectal Exam (DRE): A physical examination where a doctor feels the prostate gland through the rectal wall to check for enlargement.
  2. Urinalysis: Evaluating the urine sample for the signs of infection or other conditions.
  3. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test: Measuring PSA levels in the blood can help detect prostate abnormalities.
  4. Ultrasound: An imaging test to visualize the prostate and assess its size.
  5. Urodynamic Tests measure how well the bladder and urethra store and release urine.

These diagnostic tools help in determining the severity of the condition and also helps in ruling out other potential causes of the symptoms, such as prostate cancer.

Treatment Options

The treatment of BPH mainly depends on the severity of symptoms and how much they affect the patient’s quality of life. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgical interventions.

Lifestyle Changes

Simple lifestyle adjustments can be very effective for mild symptoms. Reducing caffeine and alcohol intake, limiting evening fluid consumption, and practising bladder training exercises can help manage symptoms. These changes can alleviate the urgency and frequency of urination.

  1. Dietary Adjustments: Cutting back on caffeine and alcohol can reduce bladder irritation. Drinking smaller amounts of fluid in the evening can reduce nighttime urination.
  2. Bladder Training: Timed voiding and bladder training exercises helps improve the bladder control and reduce urgency.


Several medications are available to treat BPH. These include:

  1. Alpha-Blockers: These medications relax the Bladder, neck, and prostate muscles, making urinating easier.
  2. 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors: These drugs help shrink the prostate over time by blocking the hormone responsible for prostate growth.
  3. Combination Therapy: A combination of alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors is prescribed for better results. This approach can be more effective in allevating symptoms and slowing the progression of BPH.

Minimally Invasive Procedures

If medications are not effective, minimally invasive treatments can be considered:

  1. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): This is a gold standard surgical procedure where a part of the prostate is removed to relieve symptoms. This procedure involves removing excess prostate tissue to allow urine to flow more easily.
  2. Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy (TUMT): This treatment uses microwave energy to shrink the prostate. TUMT is a minimally invasive technique which is performed under local anaesthesia.
  3. Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA): Radiofrequency energy reduces prostate tissue. This procedure involves inserting needles into the prostate to deliver radiofrequency energy that heats and destroys excess tissue.

These minimally invasive procedures are generally performed on an outpatient basis and have shorter recovery times than traditional surgery.


In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary. Options include:

  1. Open or Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy: Removal of the enlarged part of the prostate. This is typically considered when the prostate is significantly enlarged or when other procedures have not been successful.
  2. Laser Surgery: Using laser energy to remove or shrink excess prostate tissue. This includes procedures like Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP) and Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate (PVP).

Surgical management is more invasive and require longer recovery times, but they can provide significant and long-lasting relief from symptoms.

Prevention: Is It Possible?

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent BPH, confident lifestyle choices may reduce the risk or delay the onset of symptoms:

  1. Regular Exercise: Obesity, the major risk factor for BPH. To reduce risk, maintain a healthy weight with balanced diet and at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days.
  2. Balanced Diet: Make a habit to eat a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats that helps promote prostate health.
  3. Avoid Smoking and Limit Alcohol: Smoking can contribute to a variety of health issues, including BPH. Limiting alcohol intake can also help in reducing symptoms.
  4. Regular Check-Ups: Regular visits help early detection and management of BPH.

Why Choose Zymus Hospital for BPH Treatment?

Zymus Hospital in Bangalore is a leading center for treating BPH and other urological conditions. Our experienced urologists use the latest treatments to ensure the best outcomes. We prioritize patient comfort, offering comprehensive care from diagnosis to follow-up.

Managing an enlarged prostate can greatly improve quality of life. Understanding symptoms and treatment options is crucial. At Zymus Hospital, we provide personalized care. If you have BPH symptoms, contact us today.


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